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FAQ

What needs Splitter in ADSL for?
What is the difference between Splitter and Micro Filter?

Is Splitter different each country?
What kinds of International Standard related to ADSL Splitter are they ?
What is microwaves?
What is PAM, LNA and DRA?

What needs Splitter in ADSL for?
Splitter is LPF(Low Pass Filter). Namely, LPF rejects the data signal of high frequency and passes the voice signal of low frequency. When a mixture of PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network) Signal and ADSL Data Signal comes to CP(Customer Premises) through the Subscriber line by ADSL Equipment, the signals are mixed. So it requires a special equipment which splits these two signals . Though a human's audio frequency range is 20KHz, the data signal of more than 30KHz does not harm to her or his ears but while the data signal arrives at the ears over the phone at the same time, it affects a physical handicap such as a ringing in the ears. Also, although the voice signal of ADSL Modem is low frequency, while it is mixed with the data signal, the baud rate is plummeted with data errors occurred. And the ON/OFF HOOK and ringing signal of a phone are corrupted. Therefore, Splitter is indispensible to prevent these harms.


What is the difference between Splitter and Micro Filter?
Splitter is two kinds of for CP or CO use as the device which uses Full DMT(download speed: 8Mbps) method. Characteristic Impedance is three kinds of north America type, Europe type and Japan type. According to Characteristic Impedance, it has a little different electrical feature, and also Attenuation should be less than -65dB at about 30KHz which is the start point of ADSL.

Micro Filter is for CP use as the device which uses G.Lite(Download speed: 1.5Mbps) method. Like Splitter, according to Characteristic Impedance it has three kinds of north America type, Europe type and Japan type. General Attenuation should be less than -15dB at about 25KHz which is the start point of UADSL.

Micro Filter is recommended to use on UADSL which is download speed of about 1.5Mbps, and designed as the "Splitterless" thing at the first time. However, because of the ring signal, the noise of a telephone call, the disconnection of data transmission, finally Micro Filter was used. In addition, it is being used for CP in the method of Full DMT with the trend of the modern world.


Is Splitter different each country?
Each country has the different Characteristic Impedance of PSTN.

For example, we can not use Korean Splitter in Japan. Because Korean Characteristic Impedance is 600Ω and Japan Characteristic Impedance is 150Ω+(72nF//(830Ω+1uF)). Of course, we can use it in any other countries which has the same Characteristic Impedance.

ITU-T standardizes four types of Characteristic Impedance, G.992.1(Full DMT) type 1 Zcomplex(n) for Europe, type 2 for North America, type 3 for ISDN and type 4 for Japan.

Namely, the North America type is 600Ω and 900Ω, the Europe type is Complex(1):270Ω+(750Ω//150nF), Complex(2) : 320Ω+(1050Ω//230nF), Complex(3) : 220Ω+(820Ω//115nF) and 600Ω.


What kinds of International Standard related to ADSL Splitter are they ?
The typical International Standard is ANSI T1.413 for North America, ETSI 101 728 and ITU-T G.992.1 for Europe. It is a little difference each country, but the base of specification follows in accordance with the previous three standard.

ETSI 101 728 standardizes the base specification of ADSL Splitter for each country in Europe. ITU-T G.992.1 was established by the specification of ANSI T1.413 and also is classified into three types, Europe, North America, Japan.

ANSI : American National Standards Institute
ITU-T : International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector
ETSI : European Telecommunications Standards Institute


What is microwaves?
The term microwaves refers to alternating current signals with frequencies between 300MHz and 300GHz, with a corresponding electrical wavelength between 1m and 1mm, respectively. Signals with wavelengths on the order of millimeters are called millimeter waves. Figure shows the location of microwave frequency band in the electromagnetic spectrum.


What is PAM, LNA and DRA?
PAM (Power Amplifier Module)
PA uses a specific chip or module because it is noise source to have high thermal nature, integrated with other elements.

PAM is module chip which makes to integrate MMIC Die, In/Out Matching and Basic Bias Elements above chip. There is not only MMIC Barechip in the package, but also when it mounts Microstrip and LC elements in system, we can use it if it has power supply and a few elements without sophisticated matching process. It generally called PAM, PA module which is mounted in system.


LNA (Low Noise Amplifier)
An electric power received by RF Receiver has very low power level because of Distortion and Noise. So an amplifier needs amplification function which minimizes the noise because the signal includes many noise components from the outside. LNA is designed to control operating point and matching point, also it needs 1.5 ∼ 2.5 the value of NF(Noise Figure).

Low noise amplifier should use the minimum of current and temperature noise elements, which transistors and registors have low NF. At the same time it must get the maximum gain with Conjugation Matching.


DRA (Drive Amplifier, Driving Amplifier)
Power Amplifier should send the high power signal which is transmitted by the antenna at the Final-End. Though it can not satisfy both of Gain and Power because of Amplifier's feature, Amplifier can perform the better result if either Gain or Power is concentrated on. Especially, it is difficult to make high Gain with high Power. But some case, transmitter needs high Power and high Gain at the same time.

So the special Amplfier which has high Gain should pull from back to operate PA. Finally, the Amplfier of the Tx Final-End consists of the integration of DA-PA.

Since DA is used with PA, it is standardized and made with PA.
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